Novel insights into the enterotoxigenic potential and genomic background of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk
Daniele Chieffi , Francesca Fanelli , Gyu-Sung Cho , Justyna Schubert , Giuseppe Blaiotta , Charles M.A.P. Franz , Jacek Bania , Vincenzina Fusco
AbstractIn this study, 53 Staphylococcus (S.) aureus strains were typed by 16S–23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) typing and staphylococcal enterotoxin gene (SEg) typing for all the staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) and staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxin (sel) genes known to date, revealing a higher discriminatory power than that of multi locus sequence typing. Six strains, one of each ISR- and SEg-type, were genome sequenced and the ability to produce some classical and new SEs when growing in milk was investigated. The manual analysis of the six genomes allowed us to confirm, correct and expand the results of common available genomic data pipelines such as VirulenceFinder. Moreover, it enabled us to (i) investigate the actual location of se and sel genes, even for genes such as selY, whose location (in the core genome) was so far unknown, (ii) find novel allelic variants of se and sel genes and pseudogenes, (iii) correctly annotate se and sel genes and pseudogenes, and (iv) discover a novel type of enterotoxin gene cluster (egc), i.e. the egc type 5 in strains 356P and 364P, while S. argenteus MSHR1132 harbored the egc type 6. Four of the six S. aureus strains produced sufficient amounts of SEA, SEC, SED and SEH in milk to cause staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), with S. aureus 372 P being the highest producer of SED in milk found to date, producing as much as ca. 47,300 ng/mL and 49,200 ng/mL of SED, after 24 and 48 h of incubation in milk at 37 °C, respectively. S. aureus 372 P released a low amount of SER in milk, most likely because the seR gene was present as a pseudogene, putatively encoding only 51 amino acids. These findings confirm that not only the classical SEs, but also the new ones can represent a potential hazard for the consumers’ health if produced in foods in sufficient amounts. Therefore, the detection of SEs in foods, especially if involved in SFP cases, should focus not only on classical, but also on all the new SEs and SEls known to date. Where reference methods are unavailable, the presence of the relevant genes, by using the conventional and real time PCR protocols we exhaustively provided herein, and their nucleotide sequences, should be investigated.
|Journal series||Food Microbiology, ISSN 0740-0020, e-ISSN 1095-9998, (N/A 140 pkt)|
|Keywords in English||Enterotoxin gene cluster, Raw milk, Staphylococcal enterotoxin, Staphylococcus argenteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity Island (SaPI)|
|ASJC Classification||; ;|
|Score||= 140.0, 06-05-2021, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||= 6; = 5; : 2018 = 1.651; : 2019 = 4.155 (2) - 2019=4.534 (5)|
|Citation count*||6 (2021-05-13)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.