Gross anatomy, histological, and histochemical analysis of the eyelids and orbital glands of the neonate pygmy hippopotamus (Suina: Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis, Morton 1849) with reference to its habitat
Joanna Klećkowska-Nawrot , Karolina Goździewska-Harłajczuk , Wojciech Paszta
AbstractThe pygmy hippopotamus is phylogenetically related to members of both the Suidae and Cetacea. However, differences in their habitats may have resulted in variation in the anatomy and physiology of the ocular adnexa between these species. Therefore, this study focuses on the identification of accessory organs of the eye, which are typical for the pygmy hippopotamus and are comparable to organs present in mammals related to it. Moreover, the secretions produced by the superficial gland of the third eyelid, the deep gland of the third eyelid and the lacrimal gland were examined, as they ensure eyeball protection. In the upper and lower eyelids, numerous serous glands where identified, which were typical for the pygmy hippopotamus and similar as in the Cetacea . This study enabled to identify additional folds in the eyelids of the pygmy hippopotamus. Lymphoid follicles and diffuse lymphocytes were not found in the lymphoid region in the upper or lower eyelids and the third eyelid, which was most likely caused by the age of the studied hippopotamuses. An accurate histochemical analysis revealed that the secretions of the pygmy hippopotamus are very similar to the Sus scrofa . The structural differences between the pygmy hippopotamus and representatives of Cetacea are most likely caused by the fact that most of Cetacea live in saltwater and are exposed to more frequent fluctuations in water temperature compared to the pygmy hippopotamus, which lives in fresh water and does not lead a migratory lifestyle like the Cetacea .
|Journal series||Anatomical Record-Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology, [Anatomical Record], ISSN 1932-8486, e-ISSN 1932-8494, (N/A 100 pkt)|
|Keywords in English||accessory organs of the eye, habitat, morphology, pygmy hippopotamus|
|ASJC Classification||; ; ;|
|Not used for evaluation||yes|
|Publication indicators||= 0; : 2018 = 0.678; : 2018 = 1.329 (2) - 2018=1.687 (5)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.