Unconstrained, robust Kalman filtering for GNSS troposphere tomography
Witold Rohm , Kefei Zhang , Jarosław Bosy
AbstractThe mesoscale variability of water vapour (WV) in the troposphere is a highly complex phenomenon and modeling and monitoring the WV distribution is a very important but challenging task. Any observation technique that can reliably provide WV distribution is 5 essential for both monitoring and predicting weather. GNSS tomography technique is a powerful tool that builds upon the critical ground-based GNSS infrastructure – Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS) networks and can be used to sense the amount of WV. Previous research suggests that 3-D WV field from GNSS tomography has an uncertainty of 1 hPa. However all the models used in GNSS tomography heav10 ily rely on a priori information and constraints from non-GNSS measurements. In this study, 3-D GNSS tomography models are investigated based on an unconstrained approach with limited a priori information. A case study is designed and the results show that unconstrained solutions are feasible by using a robust Kalman filtering technique and effective removal of linearly dependent observations and parameters. Discrep15 ancies between reference wet refractivity data derived from the Australian Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model (i.e. ACCESS) and the GNSS tomography model using both simulated and real data are 4.2 ppm (mm km−1 ) and 6.5 ppm (mm km−1 ), respectively, which are essentially in the same order of accuracy. Therefore the accuracy of the integrated values should not be worse than 0.06 m in terms of zenith wet 20 delay and the integrated water vapour is a fifth of this value which is roughly 10 mm.
|Journal series||Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, (A 35 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||1.45|
|License||Journal (articles only); published final; ; with publication|
|Not used for evaluation||yes|
|Publication indicators||= 29; : 2013 = 1.644; : 2013 = 3.206 (2) - 2013=3.376 (5)|
|Citation count*||10 (2020-01-18)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.