Orbital venous pattern in relation to extraorbital venous drainage and superficial lymphatic vessels in rats
Marcela Maloveska , Lenka Kresakova , Katarina Vdoviakova , Eva Petrovova , Mario Elias , Artemiou Panagiotis , Zuzana Andrejcakova , Peter Supuka , Halina Purzyc-Orwaszer , Viktoria Kissova
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate the normal and variant anatomy of extraorbital and intraorbital venous drainage together with retroorbital communication, and determine the lymphatic drainage from the superficial orbital region with a potential outlet of lymphatic vessel into the venous bloodstream. The study of the venous system was carried out on 32 Wistar rats by using corrosion casts methods and radiography, while the lymphatic system was studied in 12 Wistar rats following ink injection. Superficially, orbital veins are connected with extraorbital veins running through angular vein of the eye and the superficial temporal vein, and via the pterygoid plexus with the maxillary vein, which provide readily accessible communication routes in the spread of infection. The extent of intraorbital and periorbital venous drainage was ensured by the dorsal and ventral external ophthalmic vein through the infraorbital vein, which together formed the principal part of the ophthalmic plexus. Venous drainage of the eyeball was carried out mainly by the vortex veins, ciliary veins and internal ophthalmic vein. The highest variability, first presented by differences in structural arrangement and formation of anastomoses, was observed within the ventral external ophthalmic vein (22 cases) and the medial vortex vein (10 cases). Four vortex veins, one vein in each quadrant of the eye, were observed in rats. The vortex vein located on the ventral side of the eyeball was occasionally found as two veins (in four cases) in the present study. The lymphatic vessel from the lower eyelid entered into the mandibular lymph centre, and from the upper eyelid entered into the superficial cervical lymph centre, but both drained into the deep cranial cervical lymph node. The direct entry of lymph entering the veins without passing through lymph nodes was not observed.
|Journal series||Anatomical Science International, ISSN 1447-6959, (A 15 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.55|
|Keywords in English||Corrosion casting; Lymphatic vessels; Orbit; Rats; Veins|
|Score||= 15.0, 11-05-2020, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||= 2; = 2; : 2017 = 0.858; : 2017 = 1.33 (2) - 2017=1.106 (5)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.