Hissing of geese: caller identity encoded in a non-vocal acoustic signal
Richard Policht , Artur Kowalczyk , Ewa Łukaszewicz , Vlastimil Hart
AbstractNon-vocal, or unvoiced, signals surprisingly have received very little attention until recently especially when compared to other acoustic signals. Some sounds made by terrestrial vertebrates are produced not only by the larynx but also by the syrinx. Furthermore, some birds are known to produce several types of non-syrinx sounds. Besides mechanical sounds produced by feathers, bills and/or wings, sounds can be also produced by constriction, anywhere along the pathway from the lungs to the lips or nostrils (in mammals), or to the bill (in birds), resulting in turbulent, aerodynamic sounds. These noises often emulate whispering, snorting or hissing. Even though hissing sounds have been studied in mammals and reptiles, only a few studies have analyzed hissing sounds in birds. Presently, only the hissing of small, nesting passerines as a defense against their respective predators have been studied. We studied hissing in domestic goose. This bird represents a ground nesting non-passerine bird which frequently produces hissing out of the nest in comparison to passerines producing hissing during nesting in holes e.g., parids. Compared to vocally produced alarm calls, almost nothing is known about how non-vocal hissing sounds potentially encode information about a caller’s identity. Therefore, we aimed to test whether non-vocal air expirations can encode an individual’s identity similar to those sounds generated by the syrinx or the larynx. We analyzed 217 hissing sounds from 22 individual geese. We calculated the Potential for Individual Coding (PIC) comparing the coefficient of variation both within and among individuals. In addition, we conducted a series of 15 a stepwise discriminant function analysis (DFA) models. All 16 acoustic variables showed a higher coefficient of variation among individuals. Twelve DFA models revealed 51.2–54.4% classification result (cross-validated output) and all 15 models showed 60.8–68.2% classification output based on conventional DFA in comparison to a 4.5% success rate when classification by chance. This indicates the stability of the DFA results even when using different combinations of variables. Our findings showed that an individual’s identity could be encoded with respect to the energy distribution at the beginning of a signal and the lowest frequencies. Body weight did not influence an individual’s sound expression. Recognition of hissing mates in dangerous situations could increase the probability of their surviving via a more efficient anti-predator response.
|Journal series||PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, (N/A 100 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.85|
|Keywords in English||Non-vocal, Communication, Vocal individuality, Non-syrinx vocalization, Recognition, Acoustic, Behavior, Anseriformes, Hiss-display, Bird|
|ASJC Classification||; ; ;|
|License||Journal (articles only); author's original; ; with publication|
|Score||= 100.0, 14-04-2021, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||= 0; = 0; : 2016 = 0.865; : 2019 = 2.379 (2) - 2019=2.81 (5)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.