Residues of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in agricultural soils adjacent to historical sources of their storage and distribution - the case study of Azerbaijan
Aleksandra Ukalska-Jaruga , Karolina Lewińska , Elton Mammadov , Anna Karczewska , Bożena Smreczak , Agnieszka Medyńska-Juraszek
AbstractThe aim of this study was to identify and examine the levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil collected from the surroundings of historical pesticide storage facilities on former agricultural aerodromes, warehouses, and pesticide distribution sites located in the most important agricultural regions in Azerbaijan. The conducted research included determination of three groups of POPs (occurring together), in the natural soil environment influenced for many years by abiotic and biotic factors that could have caused their transformations or decomposition. In this study, soil samples were collected in 21 georeferenced points located in the administrative area of Bilasuvar, Saatly, Sabirabad, Salyan and Jalilabad districts of Azerbaijan. Soil chemical analysis involved determination of organochlorine compounds (OCP): hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (three isomers α-HCH, β-HCH and γ-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) (six congeners 2,40DDT; 4,40DDT; 2,40DDE; 4,40DDE; 2,40DDE; and 4,40DDE); polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): 16 compounds from the United States Environmental Protection Agency US EPA list and, PCBs (seven congeners identified with the following IUPAC numbers: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180). Our research showed that OCPs reached the highest concentration in the studied areas. The total concentrations of OCPs ranged from 0.01 to 21,888 mg·kg−1 with significantly higher concentrations of Σ6DDTs (0.01 µg kg−1 to 21880 mg kg−1 ) compared to ΣHCH (0.14 ng kg−1 to 166.72 µg kg−1 ). The total concentrations of PCBs in the studied soils was varied from 0.02 to 147.30 µg·kg−1 but only PCB138 and PCB180 were detected in all analyzed samples. The concentrations of Σ16 PAHs were also strongly diversified throughout the sampling areas and ranged from 0.15 to 16,026 mg kg−1 . The obtained results confirmed that the agricultural soils of Azerbaijan contained much lower (up to by three orders of magnitude) concentrations of PCBs and PAHs than DDT. It is supported by the fact that PCBs and PAHs were not directly used by agriculture sector and their content results from secondary sources, such as combustion and various industrial processes. Moreover, the high concentrations of PAHs in studied soils were associated with their location in direct neighborhood of the airport, as well as with accumulation of contaminants from dispersed sources and long range transport. The high concentrations of pesticides confirm that deposition of parent OCPs have occurred from obsolete pesticide landfills.
|Journal series||Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, (N/A 100 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.7|
|Keywords in English||toxic substances; pesticides; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; polychlorinated biphenyls; DDTs; HCHs; PCBs; PAHs; soil contamination|
|License||Journal (articles only); published final; ; with publication|
|Score||= 100.0, 14-09-2020, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||= 1; : 2017 = 1.146; : 2018 = 3.06 (2) - 2018=3.38 (5)|
|Citation count*||1 (2020-09-21)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.