Biofilm Formation as a Complex Result of Virulence and Adaptive Responses of Helicobacter pylori
Paweł Krzyżek , Rossella Grande , Paweł Migdał , Emil Paluch , Grażyna Gościniak
AbstractHelicobacter pylori is a bacterium that is capable of colonizing a host for many years, often for a lifetime. The survival in the gastric environment is enabled by the production of numerous virulence factors conditioning adhesion to the mucosa surface, acquisition of nutrients, and neutralization of the immune system activity. It is increasingly recognized, however, that the adaptive mechanisms of H. pylori in the stomach may also be linked to the ability of this pathogen to form biofilms. Initially, biofilms produced by H. pylori were strongly associated by scientists with water distribution systems and considered as a survival mechanism outside the host and a source of fecal-oral infections. In the course of the last 20 years, however, this trend has changed and now the most attention is focused on the biomedical aspect of this structure and its potential contribution to the therapeutic difficulties of H. pylori. Taking into account this fact, the aim of the current review is to discuss the phenomenon of H. pylori biofilm formation and present this mechanism as a resultant of the virulence and adaptive responses of H. pylori, including morphological transformation, membrane vesicles secretion, matrix production, efflux pump activity, and intermicrobial communication. These mechanisms will be considered in the context of transcriptomic and proteomic changes in H. pylori biofilms and their modulating effect on the development of this complex structure.
|Journal series||Pathogens, ISSN 2076-0817, (N/A 100 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.95|
|Keywords in English||Helicobacter pylori, biofilm, antibiotic resistance, outer membrane vesicles, coccoid forms, efflux pumps, biofilm matrix, quorum sensing|
|License||Journal (articles only); published final; ; with publication|
|Score||= 100.0, 14-01-2021, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||: 2018 = 3.405 (2)|
|Citation count*||5 (2021-05-09)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.