Role of Infection and Immunity in Bovine Perinatal Mortality: Part 1. Causes and Current Diagnostic Approaches
John F. Mee , Paulina Jawor , Tadeusz Stefaniak
AbstractWhile non-infectious causes are more commonly diagnosed in cases of bovine perinatal mortality (PM), the proportion caused by infections is highly variable between studies (~5–35%); the reasons for this variation, and possible underestimation, are discussed. The most important pathogen-specific infectious causes of PM are bacteria (in particular, Bacillus licheniformis and Leptospira spp.), viruses (in particular BVDv) and a parasite (Neospora caninum). However, co-infection may occur in a small proportion of cases and in many cases no single pathogen is detected but gross or microscopic lesions of an inflammatory response are identified. Diagnosis is complicated by the criteria required to establish exposure, infection and causation. Additionally, pathogens can be classified as primary or secondary though such differentiation can be arbitrary. The majority of infectious cases of PM are due to in utero infections but postnatal infections (0–2 days) can also cause PM. Diagnosis of infectious PM is based on a systematic investigation of the herd health history and dam and cohort sampling and examination of the perinate and its placenta. Gross and histopathologic examinations and maternal/herd and perinate serology form the basis of current infectious PM investigations.
|Journal series||Animals, ISSN 2076-2615, e-ISSN 2076-2615, (N/A 100 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||1.1|
|Keywords in English||primary and secondary pathogens; Neospora: BVDv; Bacillus: Leptospira; perinatal mortality; stillbirth; necropsy; foetus; placenta|
|License||Journal (articles only); published final; ; with publication|
|Score||= 100.0, 20-04-2021, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||: 2018 = 1.148; : 2019 = 2.323 (2)|
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