Damage to Soil and Residual Trees Caused by Different Logging Systems Applied to Late Thinning
Anna Cudzik , Marek Brennensthul , Włodzimierz Białczyk , Jarosław Czarnecki
AbstractThis paper concerns the evaluation of logging systems in terms of the damage to the forest ecosystem. Damages to trees and soil during late thinning conducted in foothills areas in Poland using tree-length and cut-to-length logging systems were assessed. In both stands, the test plots were located within the primary and secondary skid trails. In the study, areas occupied by skid trails were determined as well as the depth of ruts. In order to determine changes in the soil properties at selected measurement points, a soil penetration resistance and a maximum shearing stress were measured. For each logging system, the share of trees damaged during harvesting operations and location of injuries were determined. The studies have shown that a70% larger area was required to form technological trail with CTL than with TL. After CTL, skid trails were scarred by shallow ruts, and the share of ruts with the depth between 0.16 and 0.25 was three times smaller than after TL. The average increase in penetration resistance of soil in the ruts after TL was 324% and 302% and after CTL 308% and 220%, respectively, for primary and secondary skid trail, in comparison to the values obtained in measurement points located 5 m from the trails. In TL, comparable changes of soil properties were caused by skidder wheels and by hauled wood. The research has shown a greater share of damaged trees after TL. In both logging systems, the most damage was found within the root collar and lower parts of the bole.
|Journal series||Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, ISSN 1845-5719, (A 20 pkt)|
|Keywords in English||logging system; soil disturbance; damage to trees|
|Score||= 20.0, 27-05-2020, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||= 8; = 11; : 2017 = 1.329; : 2017 = 1.714 (2) - 2017=1.775 (5)|
|Citation count*||4 (2019-01-29)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.