Prevalence and Traits of Mobile Colistin Resistance Gene Harbouring Isolates from Different Ecosystems in Africa
Madubuike Umunna Anyanwu , Charles Okpala , Kennedy Foinkfu Chah , Vincent Shodeinde Shoyinka
AbstractThe mobile colistin resistance (mcr) gene threatens the efficacy of colistin (COL), a last-line antibiotic used in treating deadly infections. For more than six decades, COL is used in livestock around the globe, including Africa. The use of critically important antimicrobial agents, like COL, is largely unregulated in Africa, and many other factors militate against effective antimicrobial stewardship in the continent. Currently, ten mcr genes (mcr-1 to mcr-10) have been described. In Africa, mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-5, mcr-8, and mcr-9 have been detected in isolates from humans, animals, foods of animal origin, and the environment. These genes are harboured by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, and Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. Different conjugative and nonconjugative plasmids form the backbone for mcr in these isolates; however, mcr-1 and mcr-3 have also been integrated into the chromosome of some African strains. Insertion sequences (ISs) (especially ISApl1), either located upstream or downstream of mcr, class 1 integrons, and transposons, are drivers of mcr in Africa. Genes coding multi/extensive drug resistance and virulence are colocated with mcr on plasmids in African strains. Transmission of mcr to/among African strains is nonclonal. Contact with mcr-habouring reservoirs, the consumption of contaminated foods of animal/plant origin or fluid, animal-/plant-based food trade and travel serve as exportation, importation, and transmission routes of mcr gene-containing bacteria in Africa. Herein, the current status of plasmid-mediated COL resistance in humans, food-producing animals, foods of animal origin, and environment in Africa is discussed.
|Journal series||BioMed Research International, [Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology], ISSN 1110-7243, e-ISSN 2314-6141, [1110-7251, 2314-6133, 2314-6141], (N/A 70 pkt)|
|Publication size in sheets||0.95|
|ASJC Classification||; ; ; ; ; ; ;|
|Score||= 70.0, 21-02-2021, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||: 2016 = 0.875; : 2019 = 2.276 (2) - 2019=2.858 (5)|
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